https://deepmind.com/blog/differentiable-neural-computers/ Differentiable neural computers

We showed how neural networks and memory systems can be combined to make learning machines that can store knowledge quickly and reason about it flexibly. These models, which we call differentiable neural computers (DNCs), can learn from examples like neural networks, but they can also store complex data like computers.

https://arxiv.org/abs/1610.09027 Scaling Memory-Augmented Neural Networks with Sparse Reads and Writes

Neural networks augmented with external memory have the ability to learn algorithmic solutions to complex tasks. These models appear promising for applications such as language modeling and machine translation. However, they scale poorly in both space and time as the amount of memory grows — limiting their applicability to real-world domains. Here, we present an end-to-end differentiable memory access scheme, which we call Sparse Access Memory (SAM), that retains the representational power of the original approaches whilst training efficiently with very large memories. We show that SAM achieves asymptotic lower bounds in space and time complexity, and find that an implementation runs 1,000× faster and with 3,000× less physical memory than non-sparse models. SAM learns with comparable data efficiency to existing models on a range of synthetic tasks and one-shot Omniglot character recognition, and can scale to tasks requiring 100,000s of time steps and memories. As well, we show how our approach can be adapted for models that maintain temporal associations between memories, as with the recently introduced Differentiable Neural Computer.

https://arxiv.org/abs/1611.02854v2 Lie-Access Neural Turing Machines

External neural memory structures have recently become a popular tool for algorithmic deep learning (Graves et al. 2014, Weston et al. 2014). These models generally utilize differentiable versions of traditional discrete memory-access structures (random access, stacks, tapes) to provide the storage necessary for computational tasks. In this work, we argue that these neural memory systems lack specific structure important for relative indexing, and propose an alternative model, Lie-access memory, that is explicitly designed for the neural setting. In this paradigm, memory is accessed using a continuous head in a key-space manifold. The head is moved via Lie group actions, such as shifts or rotations, generated by a controller, and memory access is performed by linear smoothing in key space. We argue that Lie groups provide a natural generalization of discrete memory structures, such as Turing machines, as they provide inverse and identity operators while maintaining differentiability. To experiment with this approach, we implement a simplified Lie-access neural Turing machine (LANTM) with different Lie groups. We find that this approach is able to perform well on a range of algorithmic tasks.

https://arxiv.org/abs/1809.11087 Learning to Remember, Forget and Ignore using Attention Control in Memory

Applying knowledge gained from psychological studies, we designed a new model called Differentiable Working Memory (DWM) in order to specifically emulate human working memory. As it shows the same functional characteristics as working memory, it robustly learns psychology inspired tasks and converges faster than comparable state-of-the-art models. Moreover, the DWM model successfully generalizes to sequences two orders of magnitude longer than the ones used in training. Our in-depth analysis shows that the behavior of DWM is interpretable and that it learns to have fine control over memory, allowing it to retain, ignore or forget information based on its relevance.